These are tears in the anal lining that stem from passing large and hard stools. They are identified by an itchy sensation, severe pain and bleeding during bowel movements.
Lateral Internal Sphincterotomy (ILS)
An incision is made in the internal sphincter muscle to reduce pressure and facilitate blood flow to the fissure to promote quicker healing. It is an effective method with a success rate of up to 95%.
These refer to swollen blood vessels that develop in the anorectal area and can be caused by various factors – excessive straining during bowel movements, obesity, pregnancy and genetics.
Haemorrhoidectomy and Haemorrhoidopexy
Haemorrhoidectomy is a surgical method that excises large and prolapsed haemorrhoids that do not respond to non-surgical methods. Alternatively, haemorrhoidopexy can also be used to treat haemorrhoids, which involves stapling the haemorrhoid back into place and cutting off blood supply until it falls off naturally.
This is a small “tunnel” that forms within the anus and extends to the external skin surrounding it. Typically, it is a result of a failed anal abscess that failed to heal properly.
Fistulomy and LIFT Procedure
Fistulomy cuts the fistula open to allow it to heal into a flat scar. In a LIFT procedure, the skin above the fistula is opened up, the sphincter muscles are spread, and the fistula is tied off.
An anal abscess is a collection of pus-filled sacs that form around the anus. They are usually caused by an infection or blockage in the anal glands.
The most common and effective way to treat an anal abscess make an incision in the sac to allow the pus to drain out.
This refers to difficulty controlling one’s bowel movements, often the result of muscle or nerve damage, which are caused by aging, childbirth, pelvic floor disorders or other conditions.
This is a reconstructive operation where the sphincter muscles are sewn in an overlapping manner to reinforce the sphincter strength. In some cases, muscle from the thighs are sewn around the sphincter to improve muscle control.
Anal cancer occurs when malignant tumours or cancer cells develop in and spread from the anus. Most causes of anal cancer are reported to be caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).
Local Resection and Abdominoperineal Resection
Tumours that have not spread beyond the anus may be removed along with some surrounding normal rectal tissue. The sphincter is left intact to allow for regular bowel movements. An abdominoperineal resection removes both the anus and anal sphincter to treat recurrent and treatment-resistant tumours.